Monday, February 18, 2013

Cure Diabetes With Your Diet

The most effective treatment for early type 2 diabetes can be found in your fridge

When Lynn Risor, 49, of Albuquerque, NM, was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during a routine checkup last summer, she was terrified. She had seen firsthand how it can ruin your health and diminish your quality of life, because two of her great-aunts had struggled with the disease. "I was scared," Risor admits.

While she may have been frightened, she wasn't surprised. At 245 pounds and with a family history of the disease, Risor knew her risk was high. But like many of the 100 million Americans affected by diabetes and prediabetes (including the 7 million that the CDC estimates don't know they have the disease), she hadn't made the dietary changes that can often prevent type 2 diabetes. (Related: Register for the Diabetes DTOUR Diet for balanced blood sugar, a flatter tummy, and increased energy) The diagnosis knocked the apathy out of her--suddenly, she was determined to do whatever it took to avoid taking medications. She sought out a holistic doctor who put her on a low-fat, plant-based diet and recommended a fitness routine. Within 6 months, Risor lost 55 pounds, restored her blood sugar to normal levels, and reversed her disease--without popping a single pill.

Trying to Lose Weight? Drop Up to 19 Pounds in 35 Days

Although she came to it a bit late, Risor's strategy was smart. While genes, age, and race contribute to your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the disease isn't necessarily inevitable. "Having a family history of diabetes doubles your risk," says Melina Jampolis, MD, a board-certified physician nutrition specialist in Los Angeles. "But, as the saying goes, genes load the gun and lifestyle pulls the trigger." With diabetes, however, you can frequently call back the bullet, especially when you're newly diagnosed. The way to do that is with a healthy diet-and-exercise program that helps you lose weight.
Video: 20 Surprisingly Sugary Foods Unveiled
On one level, that's bad news, given how tough losing weight (and keeping it off) can be for most people. But there's good news too: In many cases, you need to lose only 5 to 7% of total body weight to reduce your risks, according to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical research study of 3,234 people. Translation: If you weigh 200 pounds, dropping just 10 to 14 of them will drastically cut your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. "You don't need to squeeze back into your prom dress," says David Marrero, MD, a professor of medicine at Indiana University. But you do need to make healthy diet changes you can stick with for life.

A Breast Cancer Cure No Doctor Will Tell You About

Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.
The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.
Drawing of female breast anatomy showing  the lymph nodes, nipple, areola, chest wall, ribs, muscle, fatty tissue, lobe, and ducts.
Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.

Each breast also has blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels lead to organs called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body. They filter substances in a fluid called lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.
The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. Cancer that begins in the lobes or lobules is called lobular carcinoma and is more often found in both breasts than are other types of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon type of breast cancer in which the breast is warm, red, and swollen.
See the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood for information about childhood breast cancer.
Age and health history can affect the risk of developing breast cancer.
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for breast cancer include the following:
NCI's Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool uses a woman's risk factors to estimate her risk for breast cancer during the next five years and up to age 90. This online tool is meant to be used by a health care provider. For more information on breast cancer risk, call 1-800-4-CANCER.
Breast cancer is sometimes caused by inherited gene mutations (changes).
The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a person’s parents. Hereditary breast cancer makes up about 5% to 10% of all breast cancer. Some mutated genes related to breast cancer are more common in certain ethnic groups.
Women who have a mutated gene related to breast cancer and who have had breast cancer in one breast have an increased risk of developing breast cancer in the other breast. These women also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer, and may have an increased risk of other cancers. Men who have a mutated gene related to breast cancer also have an increased risk of this disease. For more information, see the PDQ summary on Male Breast Cancer Treatment.
There are tests that can detect (find) mutated genes. These genetic tests are sometimes done for members of families with a high risk of cancer. See the following PDQ summaries for more information:
Possible signs of breast cancer include a lump or change in the breast.
Breast cancer may cause any of the following signs and symptoms. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following problems:
  • A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area.
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast.
  • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast.
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast.
  • Fluid, other than breast milk, from the nipple, especially if it's bloody.
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin on the breast, nipple, or areola (the dark area of skin that is around the nipple).
  • Dimples in the breast that look like the skin of an orange, called peau d’orange.
Other conditions that are not breast cancer may cause these same symptoms.
Tests that examine the breasts are used to detect (find) and diagnose breast cancer.
A doctor should be seen if changes in the breast are noticed. The following tests and procedures may be used:
  • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Clinical breast exam (CBE): An exam of the breast by a doctor or other health professional. The doctor will carefully feel the breasts and under the arms for lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
  • Mammogram: An x-ray of the breast.
    Photograph shows the right breast positioned between the plates of a mammography machine.
    Mammography of the right breast.
  • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
  • Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.
  • Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. If a lump in the breast is found, the doctor may need to remove a small piece of the lump. Four types of biopsies are as follows:
If cancer is found, tests are done to study the cancer cells.
Decisions about the best treatment are based on the results of these tests. The tests give information about:
  • how quickly the cancer may grow.
  • how likely it is that the cancer will spread through the body.
  • how well certain treatments might work.
  • how likely the cancer is to recur (come back).
Tests include the following:
  • Estrogen and progesterone receptor test: A test to measure the amount of estrogen and progesterone (hormones) receptors in cancer tissue. If there are more estrogen and progesterone receptors than normal, the cancer may grow more quickly. The test results show whether treatment to block estrogen and progesterone may stop the cancer from growing.
  • Human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2/neu) test: A laboratory test to measure how many HER2/neu genes there are and how much HER2/neu protein is made in a sample of tissue. If there are more HER2/neu genes or higher levels of HER2/neu protein than normal, the cancer may grow more quickly and is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. The cancer may be treated with drugs that target the HER2/neu protein, such as trastuzumab and lapatinib.
  • Multigene tests: Tests in which samples of tissue are studied to look at the activity of many genes at the same time. These tests may help predict whether cancer will spread to other parts of the body or recur (come back).
    • Oncotype DX: This test helps predict whether stage I or stage II breast cancer that is estrogen receptor positive and node-negative will spread to other parts of the body. If the risk of the cancer spreading is high, chemotherapy may be given to lower the risk.
    • MammaPrint: This test helps predict whether stage I or stage II breast cancer that is node-negative will spread to other parts of the body. If the risk of the cancer spreading is high, chemotherapy may be given to lower the risk.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
  • The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether it is in the breast only or has spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body).
  • The type of breast cancer.
  • Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor levels in the tumor tissue.
  • Human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2/neu) levels in the tumor tissue.
  • Whether the tumor tissue is triple-negative (cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or high levels of HER2/neu).
  • How fast the tumor is growing.
  • How likely the tumor is to recur (come back).
  • A woman’s age, general health, and menopausal status (whether a woman is still having menstrual periods).
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Cancer cure that can leave you a prisoner in your home

'I have improved, but I'm not 100 per cent,' said Sir Michael Holroyd
'I have improved, but I'm not 100 per cent,' said Sir Michael Holroyd
The news for cancer sufferers is good.
Life expectancy has zoomed up with better treatments generally.
Since the early Nineties, there has been a year-on-year 3 per cent increase in the number of people who survive the disease.
But what hasn’t caught up are treatments for the long-term medical side-effects of the cancer therapies, particularly any cancer involving the pelvic area, such as cancers of the rectum, cervix, prostate, bladder or uterus, and especially when radiotherapy is used as part of the treatment.
The problem is that while radiation therapy burns the cancer, it can also burn tissue around it, and the resultant scarring can cause unpleasant complications, resulting in ongoing diarrhoea or constipation, and bladder and sexual problems.
In addition, as a result of the scarring mechanism, some people can get swelling of their legs (lymphoedema), problems with their skin and even nerve damage.
To make matters worse, the symptoms can appear many years after treatment, because in some people the radiotherapy continues to damage tissue long after it has finished.
So patients have no means of relating the symptoms to the radiation.
In those who’ve had pelvic radiation, 90 per cent of patients report a permanent change in bowel habits afterwards, and 30 per cent have problems with the bladder, often causing urine to leak.
Some problems are so severe patients are housebound.
While the cancer disappears, the effects of the treatment can be life-changing — as Sir Michael Holroyd, 77, award-winning biographer of George Bernard Shaw, among others, found after treatment for bowel and rectal cancer in 2005.
Symptoms can appear many years after treatment, because in some people the radiotherapy continues to damage tissue long after it has finished
Symptoms can appear many years after treatment, because in some people the radiotherapy continues to damage tissue long after it has finished
Before having surgery, he underwent six weeks of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
‘I didn’t like the chemo, but I seemed to get on with the radiotherapy,’ says Sir Michael, who is married to novelist Dame Margaret Drabble.
‘But though it may have saved my life, it’s the source of my difficulties today.’
He adds: ‘After a few months, I told the hospital I was having problems with diarrhoea, and was told it would improve. It did, slightly, but I was still going to the loo about 12 times a day. 
‘I never knew whether I was going to have a good day or a bad day. I became imprisoned in my own home.’
Most people will have some problems during radiotherapy, explains Dr Jervoise Andreyev, a consultant gastroenterologist at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, and one of the few doctors researching and treating pelvic radiation disease (PRD).
‘Then, over the next few months, there is some sort of return to normality, but it generally never goes back to where it was before.’
He says one in ten patients will develop chronic pain, with one in five suffering faecal incontinence.
‘Some will have to go to the loo up to 30 times a day, and it carries on getting worse, affecting their quality of life, their sex life, everything.’
Up to one-third of patients will have long-term problems with urination.
The problem is that so few people in the medical profession are aware of it. If a patient goes back to his oncologist, he’ll simply say that he’s clear of cancer, so what’s the problem? He’s done his job.
And when patients go to their GP, they are most often told that it’s irritable bowel syndrome, about which very little can be done.
They’re usually told to avoid tomatoes and all fibrous foods, and to take a diarrhoea remedy.
But the truth is that a lot can be done for these patients. It’s just a matter of getting doctors to refer patients to someone who understands the problems.
In the whole of Europe and the U.S., there is only one clinic to help people affected with PRD. It’s run by Dr Andreyev, who works with a team of specialist nurses and dieticians.
‘The alarming truth is that every hospital has a specialist for other bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s,’ he says.
‘But although the number of people suffering from problematic PRD is the same as for Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis, we run the only comprehensive clinic specialising in how to treat them.’
At the Royal Marsden clinic, patients are put through a series of tests, obsessively investigating the cause for every symptom they report.
‘For example, there are at least 13 causes for diarrhoea after pelvic radiotherapy,’ says Dr Andreyev.
‘Each needs a different approach.’
Sir Michael was treated at the clinic.
‘Dr Andreyev was incredibly helpful. He gave me antibiotics to see if it was a bacteriological problem, but it seems it was the scarring. He suggested that I go on a low-fat diet.
‘I have improved, but I’m not 100 per cent. I still cannot tell what each day will bring.
‘I would have liked to have been told earlier by people who understood what it was, and knew who I could see.’
This is a common complaint. When Richard Surman, chairman of the Pelvic Radiation Disease Association and himself a sufferer, sought help, he got the runaround.
‘The chemotherapy people said it was the radiotherapy to blame, and the radiotherapy people told me it was the chemotherapy.
‘When you talk to the surgeons and say you’re suffering, they look bewildered.
'To them, you haven’t got cancer so it’s the end of the story. But it often isn’t.
‘The first time I was aware of a problem was a year after I’d been cleared of cancer and had long finished my treatment. Completely out of the blue, I had an “accident” when I was out.
‘I didn’t leave the house for a month. I’d be fine for a while, and then it would hit me.’
Mr Surman also saw Dr Andreyev. As well as antibiotic treatment, pelvic-floor exercises and dietary changes, he was given the anti-depressant amitriptyline, which has useful side-effects in stabilising the bowel.
A recent study from the Royal Marsden has also suggested that statins and ACE inhibitors — used to treat high blood pressure — might help protect against scar tissue formation.
‘We are becoming increasingly good at knowing how to cure cancer,’ says Dr Andreyev.
‘Mechanisms exist to address the psychological struggles of patients with cancer, and the hospice movement has revolutionised the care of those dying from cancer.
‘But what we have failed to address systematically is how best to care for the patient who is cured of cancer but is living with the physical consequences of the treatment.’
The Pelvic Radiation Disease Society., PO Box 602, Epsom KT17 9JB, or tel. 0845 434 5134.

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